Ali Haidar Shah, Poonam Sharma
Gardening, yards, grounds, parks and other types of spaces are landscaped and decorated with plants. Garden and landscape design is used to enhance the appearance of buildings, public spaces, recreation areas and parks.
It is a decorative art form associated with architecture, town planning and gardening, the vegetated landscape that covered most of the Earth’s continents before humans began to build, still surrounds and even penetrates them. largest metropolises. Efforts to design gardens and to preserve and develop open green spaces in and around cities are efforts to maintain contact with the original rural and pastoral landscape. The designed gardens and landscapes, by filling the open spaces in the cities, create a continuity in the space between the structural cityscapes and the rural landscapes open beyond.
In addition, gardens and landscapes have a unique form of chronological continuity. Buildings, paintings, and sculptures may outlive single plants, but the relentless cyclical growth and change of plants provide a continuous temporal dimension that static structures and sculpture can never provide.
Aspects of landscape architecture
The arrangement of gardens and landscapes is a substantial part but by no means the whole of the work of the profession of landscape architect. Defined as “the art of arranging the land and the objects therein for human use and enjoyment”, landscape architecture also includes site planning, land use planning, town planning, urban design and environmental planning. Site planning involves plans for specific developments in which precise layouts of buildings, roads, utilities, landscape features, topography, water features and vegetation are indicated. Land use planning concerns larger-scale developments involving subdivision into several or more plots, including land and landscape analyzes, feasibility studies for economic, social, political, technical and ecological constraints, and detailed site plans if necessary.
Primary planning is for land use, conservation and development at even larger sizes, such as open spaces, recreation parks, water and drainage, transportation, and utilities.
Environmental planning is used to describe natural or urbanized regions, or significant areas within them, where the impact of development on land and natural systems, their ability to support and sustain development, or their preservation and conservation needs have been carefully considered and developed as constraints. on urban design and master, land and site planning. In the context of a thorough investigation and investigation, and ideally, all of these planning and design phases follow each other closely in a continuous sequential process, but this rarely happens. Different levels of planning and design are carried out by different people at different times; often the most complete phases are not performed at all or are performed in an overly simplified manner. The savvy gardener or landscape architect therefore always begins with a careful analysis of the conditions surrounding the project. Garden and landscape design deals with the treatment of areas of land not covered by buildings, when these areas are considered important for the visual experience, with or without utilitarian function. Typically, these lands are of four types: those closely related to isolated buildings, such as front yards, side yards and back yards, or larger lots; those around and between clusters of buildings such as campuses, civic and cultural centers, commercial and industrial complexes those bordering and parallel to transportation and public service corridors such as boardwalks, highways, waterways, easements electric; and park and recreation open space areas and systems. These areas can be any size, from small urban backyards and suburban gardens to several thousand acres of regional, state, or national parks. Although they are generally designed as vegetated green spaces on natural soil, they can also include playgrounds, urban squares, indoor shopping malls, rooftop gardens and terraces, which can be almost fully formed. by construction and paving.
The landscaping and landscaping therefore works with a wide range of natural and processed materials capable of withstanding the specific local climatic conditions of the site. These materials include earth, rock, water and plants, either present on the site or brought; and building materials such as concrete, stone, brick, wood, tile, metal and glass.
The influence of Chinese culture throughout the East was such that other indigenous cultures generally succumbed to it, but India was an exception. Western garden styles were introduced to northern India first through contact with Iranian culture, then through the invasion of Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic influence that followed, and, finally, by the Mughal invaders, who introduced the Islamic garden.
In southern India and Sri Lanka, elaborate gardens existed before the birth of the Buddha (around 6th-4th century BCE). Under a tree in such a garden containing baths, lotus-covered pools, trees and flower beds, the Buddha himself would be born. Formerly venerated by Hindus, trees thus acquire an additional sanctity. Buddhist temples were associated with gardens whose purpose was to promote contemplation and whose favorite sites were therefore far from cities.
(The authors are doctoral students)